Action Heatmaps: Unlocking Data Visualisations for Football Video Analysis

When it comes to analysing the performance of football teams and players, having access to comprehensive data is essential. One powerful tool that has revolutionised the way we understand the game is action heatmaps. These visual representations provide a detailed overview of player movement, highlight areas of heavy activity, and reveal tactical patterns. In this blog post, we will explore what action heatmaps are and discuss their use cases in the world of soccer video analysis.

What are Action Heatmaps?

Action heatmaps are graphical representations that display the frequency of events or actions within a specific area/areas of a football pitch. They use colours to map the intensity of activity, with hotter colours (such as red or orange) indicating high frequency and cooler colours (such as blue or green) representing lower frequency. By visualising the spatial distribution of actions, heatmaps provide valuable insights into team dynamics, player positioning, strategies, and overall performance.

The origin of Heatmaps

The beginnings of heat maps in football were rudimentary, with simple visualisations that merely tracked the positions of players. However, technological leaps and methodological innovations have turned heat maps into an indispensable tool for analysing sport. In the past, they were mainly used for simple observation, but today, thanks to the latest technologies, they enable detailed analysis of match behaviour, tactical positioning and game dynamics.

Technological progress

In recent years, heatmaps have evolved enormously thanks to technological advances. The integration of artificial intelligence and machine learning has led to these tools becoming increasingly complex. They have moved from static images to dynamic, predictive models that make it possible to gain even deeper insights from the collected data. This rapid development illustrates the enormous progress that heatmaps have made in the field of sports analysis.

Use Cases of Heatmaps in Football

Player Movement and Positioning Analysis

Action heatmaps allow coaches and analysts to evaluate player movement and positioning during a match. By analysing the distribution of actions across the pitch, they can identify the areas where players are most active, understand their preferred positions, and assess their overall contribution to the team. This information can be used to optimise player roles, make tactical adjustments, and enhance team performance.

Tactical Analysis and Strategy Development

Heatmaps help teams and coaches gain a better understanding of their opponents' tactics and playing style. By analysing the frequency and distribution of actions, they can identify the areas on the pitch that their opposition is targeting or leaving vulnerable. This knowledge enables teams to devise strategies to exploit weaknesses or counter opponents' strengths. On the other hand, frequent actions of the coach's own team can be identified to find areas of overload which are effective or ineffective.

Performance Evaluation and Player Development

Action heatmaps provide a visual representation of an individual player's involvement in different areas of the pitch. They can be utilised to assess a player's performance, identify areas for improvement, and track progress over time. For example, a striker's heatmap may reveal whether they are consistently positioned to receive balls in dangerous areas or if they tend to drift away from scoring positions.

Team Chemistry and Coordination

By analysing action heatmaps of the entire team, coaches can assess the coordination and chemistry between players. They can identify patterns, relationships, and areas of overlap in terms of player positioning and interactions. This analysis helps teams improve their collective decision-making, build better partnerships, and enhance overall team performance.

Fan Engagement and Visual Communication

Action heatmaps are not just restricted to the teams and coaches; they also play a crucial role in engaging fans and conveying information visually. Heatmaps can be used in post-match analysis, halftime reports, and even television broadcasts at higher levels to illustrate key moments, highlight individual performances, or explain tactical decisions. They make complex data more accessible and add a visually appealing element to football analysis.

Injury Prevention and Fitness Analysis

Heatmaps can also be utilised to analyse the physical demands placed on players and help with injury prevention. By tracking the intensity of player actions in different areas of the pitch, coaches and fitness trainers can identify high-risk zones where players may be more prone to injuries due to excessive exertion. Heatmap analysis can highlight areas of the pitch where players have a high frequency of sprints or other intense movements. This information can guide training programs and help design specific conditioning drills to target those areas, reducing the risk of injuries and improving overall player fitness. Additionally, heatmaps can be helpful in monitoring and managing the workload of players during matches and training sessions, ensuring that they are not overexerted and reducing the risk of fatigue-related injuries.

Heatmaps through your football camera with zone14 STATS

Heat Map on zone14 REPLAY

Introduced as part of zone14 STATS version 0.3, the newest addition to our football analysis tools designed to revolutionise performance evaluation for all clubs. Now, in addition to our powerful numerical fitness insights, we have announced the integration of action heatmaps into zone14 REPLAY This feature allows our users to access comprehensive and visually appealing heatmaps that highlight player movement and tactical patterns with just a few clicks. With the zone14 ONE camera system capturing every moment on the pitch, we've made it easier than ever for grassroots and amateur teams to leverage the power of action heatmaps in their football video analysis. Discover a whole new level of understanding and enhance your team's performance with zone14 STATS, making advanced video analysis possible for teams of all levels!

Integration of artificial intelligence

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning in football video analysis can significantly improve the effectiveness of heatmaps. AI algorithms are able to recognise complex patterns and trends in heatmaps that are difficult for human analysts to identify. They can automatically recognise game strategies, movement patterns or individual player preferences.

Algorithms analyse heatmaps in real time during the game. They can continuously extract data from the flow of the game and immediately provide relevant insights that allow coaches to make quick tactical adjustments.

In addition, these algorithms analyse heatmaps in real time during the game. They can continuously extract data from the flow of the game and immediately provide relevant insights that allow coaches to make quick tactical adjustments.

The potential of Heatmaps

By analysing the heatmap data and other relevant information about the players, AI systems could also provide personalised training, tactical and positional recommendations. These recommendations would promote the individual development of players and improve the team as a whole.

AI models could make advanced predictions based on historical data and heatmap analyses. They would help coaches make informed decisions by predicting how effectively tactical decisions could impact the game or which players would be most effective in certain positions.

The integration of AI into football video analysis would make heatmaps a powerful tool that not only visualises data, but also enables complex analysis and decision-making. Coaches and analysts could develop a deeper understanding of the game and optimise the performance of their teams.


Action heatmaps have emerged as a powerful tool in the world of football analysis. By providing a visual representation of player movements and actions on the pitch, they unlock valuable insights, aid tactical decision-making, and enhance team performance. From analysing player positioning and coordination to developing strategies and engaging fans, action heatmaps have revolutionised the way we can understand and analyse football. Want to bring heatmaps to your team with zone14? Book a call here with our expert team.

Share on Facebook
Share on Twitter
Share on Linkedin


Dein Livestream, Deine Sponsoren, Deine Regeln